Background and Aim: Topography of the human insula has occasionally been studied in different populations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphology of human insula in Iranian population and its relationship with sex, age, and handedness via magnetic resonance imaging.

Methods and Materials/Patients: In our study, 380 normal magnetic resonance imaging were enrolled. The number of short and long insular gyri, as well as their relationship with sex, age, hemispheres and handedness were assessed.

Results: No significant differences were seen in number of insular gyri among right and left hemispheres, and males and females, but gyri number of left insula in right handers were significantly more than that in left handers. Maximum anterior – posterior distance of base of insula was longer in male and left insula compared to female and right insula, respectively. Younger individuals had more gyri than the older ones. The middle short insular gyrus can be absent more frequently than anterior and posterior short gyri.

Conclusion: The sagittal magnetic resonance imagings in our study can be appropriate for numbering the insular gyri and help to understand the complicated anatomical structures of insula. The findings of this study demonstrate an insular gyri pattern of handedness and age-related morphology in Iranian population, with similar gyri pattern in both males and females.

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